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Cairo is the capital of Egypt and the largest city in Africa, as well as the Middle East. Its name means "the victorious city" and it is known locally as "Misr", the Arabic name for Egypt. It is because of its centrality in Egyptian life. It was built by the Fatimid leader Jawhar Al Sekelly by the orders of Al -Moez Leā€™Deen El Allah the caliph who wanted to have a protected capital to the jewel of his crown Egypt. With the desert of the east, south, west, and the north Cairo bounded by the fertile Nile delta, it spreads itself across both banks of the River Nile; covering an area of more than 453 KM (175 miles), though sometimes it can be difficult to separate the city from some of its suburbs. Though the city itself is reasonably modern, it was not built until circa 973, the area has had settlements that date back to before the Old Kingdom, with Heliopolis being the site of an ancient Sun Temple, nearby Memphis being the capital of Egypt until the Greek Period and of course the settlements that existed in the time of the Giza Pyramids. The history of Cairo is divided into three types of Cairo Pharaonic Cairo, Coptic Cairo and Islamic Cairo

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